History of the 3DQ Laboratory at Stanford University

The 3D and Quantitative Imaging Laboratory was developed in 1996 at Stanford University School of Medicine by directors Geoffrey Rubin, MD, and Sandy Napel, PhD, with the mission of developing and applying innovative techniques for efficient analysis and display of medical imaging data through interdisciplinary collaboration. We had 300 square feet of space in the ground floor of the Grant building at the School of Medicine, occupied by Laura Logan (now Pierce), 3D imaging technologist. Equipment included one GE Advantage Workstation, one Silicon Graphics Onyx Infinite Reality workstation, and one Silicon Graphics 02 workstation. Engineering students, post docs, and clinical researchers rotated through the lab. The average monthly clinical 3DQ volume was 64 examinations.

After one year, the growing 3DQ Lab moved to the Richard M. Lucas Center and acquired 650 square feet of space. Gradually 3DQ Lab added three more 3DQ technologists, an administrative assistant, and a full time software engineer. With continued growth and a need for even more space, the 3DQ Lab expanded to the James H. Clark center in 2003; for a total of 1300 square feet of working space. By 2008 three additional 3DQ technologists were part of the 3DQ team.

In 2010, Dr. Geoff Rubin and Mrs. Pierce left the lab and moved to Duke University; Brooke Jeffrey became interim co-Director. In 2011 the Lab was renamed “Radiology 3D and Quantitative Imaging Lab”, in recognition of the pioneering work on image quantitation begun in the lab. Daniel Rubin, a radiologist and medical informatician, joined the lab to lead our expansion into quantitative imaging.

During 2012 the 3DQ Lab moved operations from the Richard M. Lucas Center back to the Grant building at the School of Medicine.

In 2013 the co-director vacancy became permanently filled by Dr. Dominik Fleischmann and Roland Bammer, PhD. This directorship championed a new management structure for the 3DQ Lab. Linda Horst, Marc Sofilos, and Shannon Walters became the 3DQ Lab management team.

The trends in 3D processing moved toward quantification in a significant manner during 2013. Several examples of this are modifying protocols to provide quick measurements, customized reporting on a per-clinic basis, building custom web portals for clinics, moving toward oncologic measurements, distributing access to software, and virtualizing the 3DQ Lab software environment.


Stanford University is one of the largest Silicon Valley employers. Stanford Radiology 3DQ Lab provides a stimulating environment for medical professionals to pursue a career in 3DQ image post- processing. We encourage our staff to grow professionally while fulfilling the mission and goals of the 3DQ Lab.

For the latest information about job availability at Stanford, please visit http://jobs.stanford.edu.

Stanford University is an affirmative action equal opportunity employer.

Tools of the Trade

Multi-Specialty Image Processing Software

The 3DQ Laboratory houses many state-of-the-art 3DQ rendering workstations as well as client/server solutions. These software platforms represent a majority of image processing needs/functions. Many of these resources are available via secure remote access.

General Electric Healthcare

Stanford 3DQ Lab uses one GE Advantage Workstation and one GE Advantage Workstation Server. Previously five GE Advantage workstations ran daily in 3DQ Lab. Among the all-encompassing image processing tools, GE has robust segmentation, CPR, and multi-viewer tools. A significant benefit is that a user can take advantage of two screens.

  • Navigator
  • Vessel Analysis
  • Smart Score
  • Cardiac IQ (including function)
  • Colonography
  • Advanced Lung Analysis
  • GSI Imaging
  • Auto-Vessel
  • Auto-Bone
  • Data Export.
Visit GE's AW Server Site

Siemens Healthcare

Stanford 3DQ Lab uses Siemens Syngo.via software, to include basic MM Reading software as well as advanced modules such as.

  • Body Perfusion
  • Spine & Rib Labeling
  • Cardiac Processing
  • Dual Energy
  • Virtual Colonography
  • Oncologic Assessment Tools
  • CT Vascular Tools
  • CT Bone Tools
Visit Siemens' Syngo.via US website


Stanford 3DQ Lab uses TeraRecon software such as AQNet, iNtuition, Advanced Processing Servers, and AquariusGate. Three TeraRecon AquariusNET/Intuition Servers stream real-time interactive diagnostic 3D and quantification needs to remote radiologists and clinicians. Radiologists and 3DQ technologists use AquariusNET/Intuition thin clients for fast 3DQ problem solving, interactive MIPs and MPRs, and capturing representative images and clips for physicians.

  • Vessel Analysis (incl. coronary)
  • Volumetric Histogram
  • Calcium Scoring
  • Fusion for CT/MR/PET/SPECT
  • TDA – Time Dependent Analysis
  • Multi-Phase MR
  • CT/CTA Subtraction
  • Parametric Mapping
  • LD – Lobular Decomposition
  • Spherefinder
  • iGENTLE Multi-KV
  • SAT – Segmentation Analysis
  • Findings Workflow  and Tracking
  • TDA (Flow)
  • TVA – Time Volume Analysis TVA (MR)
  • Maxillo-facial Flythrough (Colon)
  • 3D Printing friendly
  • Image Stitching (non-deformable)
Visit TeraRecon Website

Highly Specialized Image Processing Software

The 3DQ Laboratory utilizes many specialized image processing platforms to fill various niches in clinical demand. Among these are specialized software for functional brain imaging, functional heart imaging, and even software to improve 3D Printing capabilities.


Stanford 3DQ Lab uses Invivo5 dental image processing software from Anatomage. This software covers all clinical dental applications such as Implantology, CAD/CAM, Orthodontics, Oral Surgery, Periodontics, Prosthodontics, Radiology, Medicine and General Science.

Visit Anatomage's Invivo5 Website

Coreline Soft

Stanford 3DQ lab uses AVIEW Modeler from Coreline Soft. This software enables technologists to isolate anatomic structures and prepare for 3D printing.

Visit Coreline Soft's Webpage


Stanford 3DQ Lab uses ProFuse from Eigen. This software enables 3DQ Lab technologists to assist Urologists by identifying the precise borders of the prostate and any significant lesions therein. These segmented structures are fused with ultrasound for a guided biopsy.

Visit Eigen's Website


Stanford 3DQ Lab uses Dynasuite Neuro from Invivo to assist Radiologists in visualizing brain function. This server/client architecture enables remote sites to collaborate and provide quick results.

Visit Invivo's DynaSuite Neuro Website


iSchemaView RAPID AI software is a medical image software package that provides viewing, processing and analysis of brain images.

  • Cerebral Blood Flow/Hypoperfusion
  • Tmax Hypoperfusion
  • Cerebral Blood Volume
  • Mean Time to Transfer
  • Arterial Input Function Plot
Visit iSchemaView's Website


Stanford 3DQ Lab uses Mimics and 3-matic from Materialise. Combined, these softwares enable efficient and accurate workflow for converting DICOM information to 3D-printable .STL files.

Visite Materialise's Mimics Website


Stanford 3DQ Lab uses Medis software to quantify and visualize MRI Heart Examinations.

  • QMass
  • QFlow
  • CTMass
Visit Medis' Website

Mint Medical

Stanford 3DQ Lab uses mintLesion from Mint Medical GmbH. Mint Medical provides individually tailored software solutions for medical diagnosis, therapy planning and standardized therapy response evaluation in clinical routine and research.

Visit Mint Medical's mintLesion Website