3D opaque and transparent volume rendered images show the complete spine of a 4 year old female with a thoracolumbar kyphoscoliotic curve consistent with mucopolysaccharidosis. Mucopolysaccharidosis (types I-VII) are a group of metabolic disorders caused by the absence or malfunctioning of lysosomal enzymes needed to break down glycosaminoglycans. Over time, the glycosaminoglycans collect in the cells, blood, and connective tissues, and affect bone, skeletal structure, and organs. The 3D images show kyphosis (the clinical condition of excessive curvature of the upper back leading to a stooped forward posture) as well as scoliosis (a sideways curvature of the spine). Stanford 3DQ Lab technologists generate these images utilizing specialized 3D software tools, clearly displaying the pathology and anatomy, which, in turn, guides the surgeons prior to treating their patients.

Marc Sofilos, RT

3DQ Lab Manager